The main purpose of the pancreas is to synthesize the hormone insulin. Without it, glucose is not broken down, the body, to put it simply, becomes "sugar-coated", and type I diabetes develops. However, type II diabetes is ten times more common when the body has difficulty absorbing insulin or the depleted gland produces too little of it. This type of diabetes is much more insidious, it is fraught with serious complications: from amputation of limbs to blindness. The disease is much more difficult to detect, so it is important to know its symptoms.
The main symptom of diabetes is excess blood glucose. Normal values depend on age, gender and do not exceed 6.1 mmol / l. The figure 7, 0 mmol / l should alert, rather, this is already a prelude to diabetes (prediabetes). And indicators above 7, 0 mmol / l confirm the presence of the disease.
In diabetes, glucose is poorly redistributed from the blood to the cells. They are starving, and because of this, the breakdown and utilization of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats is radically disrupted. With each new portion of food, the body accumulates undigested substances and toxins.
Such a failure causes symptoms that are specific to diabetes. First of all, a person is constantly thirsty. Accordingly, urination becomes more frequent, and the amount of urine increases. In addition, a diabetic is constantly hungry and often suffers from severe bouts of hunger.
There are other signs that can signal diabetes. First, wounds begin to heal for a long time, and later, generally non-healing ulcers appear. The calf muscles are cramping. At times, tingling, numbness is felt in the legs or arms. There are sudden dizziness. Visual acuity decreases. A person often suffers from colds.
The progression of diabetes is inextricably linked to changes in body weight. There are two extremes: either a person loses weight sharply, or quickly gains weight. Most often, a diabetic is distinguished by exorbitantly large dimensions. By the way, it is in obese children and adults who have the greatest chances of becoming a victim of this disease.
Diabetes is an incurable disease, but it can be corrected. You can slow down its development and prevent dangerous complications. True, many novice diabetics think that it is enough to maintain optimal sugar levels with medication and everything will be fine. It's a delusion.
Of course, you need to have your blood sugar checked regularly and take anti-diabetic medications for life. Usually, pills are prescribed first. But after ten years they become ineffective, even despite the maximum doses. And then you have to switch to insulin injections. With them, the treatment of type I diabetes begins immediately. Otherwise, both types of the disease are similar.
Diabetes is not just a disease, it is a special, new way of life. No drug will work without a therapeutic diet. It is necessary not only to constantly keep sugar in check, but also not to gain weight. For a diabetic, sweets, sweet fruits, and bakery products should be very rare. All fats consumed should be half vegetable.
The nature of the diet should be seriously revised and a new menu should be drawn up. It is easier to do this using the glycemic index table. They tell you how quickly certain foods raise blood sugar levels. On the table should be daily vegetables and herbs - rich in vitamins, minerals, they slow down the absorption of carbohydrates. Lean boiled meat, fish, rye bread, tomato juice, low-fat dairy products, mushrooms, green tea are useful.
In addition to drugs and a therapeutic diet, it is necessary to load the body every day with feasible physical activities, sports, and leisurely half-hour walks.They increase your body's sensitivity to insulin, help you lose weight, and reduce the risk of diabetic complications.