Heart rupture occurs in people with myocardial infarction, complicated by early postinfarction angina pectoris, excessive activity in the first week after a heart attack, as well as in people who were later prescribed thrombolytic drugs. Heart rupture can also occur in patients taking hormonal and anti-inflammatory drugs after a heart attack.
Heart rupture is a serious and fatal complication of myocardial infarction. It occurs in 2-8% of cases reported in patients with myocardial infarction. People who have had myocardial infarction for the first time are more susceptible to rupture of the heart than those who have been diagnosed with it 2 or more times.
Myocardial infarction can occur due to impaired current in the coronary arteries, atherosclerosis, arterial hypertension, obesity, smoking and a sedentary lifestyle. At the same time, the risk of heart rupture increases several times in women, in people with transmural myocardial infarction - when the heart muscle is deeply and extensively affected, as well as in people who have not previously encountered attacks of angina pectoris and those who have not been able to provide medical care in the first days from the onset of myocardial infarction.
Other causes of heart rupture include the late use of thrombolytic drugs - drugs that can dissolve a blood clot that caused a heart attack. With the early use of thrombolytics and successful restoration of coronary blood flow, it is possible to reduce the frequency of myocardial ruptures and prevent irreversible consequences. If the patient exhibits excessive physical activity in the first week of a heart attack, then this can lead to an increase in the load on the diseased heart and, as a result, rupture. And for this it is enough just to walk a little along the street, go up to your apartment on foot, and not by elevator and the like.
If a patient is diagnosed with early postinfarction angina after a heart attack, this also increases the risk of heart rupture. Those who take hormonal and anti-inflammatory drugs can also not withstand the heart, since these drugs prevent the formation of connective tissue - a scar in the damaged area of the heart. As a result, the affected part of the myocardium remains defenseless against rupture.
A ruptured heart is treated exclusively with surgery. In some cases, the patient can be saved by closing the ventricular septal defect, plastic or mitral valve replacement. If we are talking about moderate decompensation, then the disease can be dealt with with the help of cardiac glycosides and diuretics. When this condition is complicated by severe hypotension, therapy with peripheral vasodilators, reinforced with a powerful inotropic agent, dopamine, is prescribed.